Bruguiera gymnorhiza

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‘Orange Mangroves’


5 species & 1 hybrid in Australia

Bruguiera Lam. (1791) is an Indo-West Pacific genus within the small pantropic family Rhizophoraceae R.Br. that consists of 16 genera and around 120 species of trees and shrubs. Four genera are found exclusively in mangroves, and all are notably viviparous, including Rhizophora, Ceriops, Kandelia (DC.) Wight & Arn. and Bruguiera. Bruguiera are distinguished by calyces with 8-16, lanceolate, pointed lobes, 16-32 stamens, explosive pollen release, and distinctly viviparous propagule. The genus consists of two imperfect groupings of species, including: 4 species with large, mostly solitary flowers, namely B. exaristata, B. gymnorhiza, B. X rhynchopetala and B. sexangula; and, 3 species with 2-5 small flowers in each inflorescence, namely B. cylindrica, B. hainesii C.G.Rogers and B. parviflora. The hybrid is here described as B. X rhynchopetala (= B. gymnorhiza X B. sexangula) from stands in China and North-eastern Australia. All taxa except B. hainesii occur in Australia.

Derivation of Genus Name

Named in honour of the French biologist and explorer, Jean-Guillaume Bruguiére (1750-1798), famous for his naming of molluscs, marine life and plants.


Bruguiera are an Indo-West Pacific genus present in most mangrove stands from the East Coast of Africa through Asia and Indonesia, the Philippines, to the western Pacific Islands and northern Australia. Bruguiera gymnorhiza is considered one of the most broadly distributed by longitude of any mangrove species.

Bruguiera world distribution map

Key to Australia's Bruguiera Species

Bruguiera Key

Bruguiera Australia distribution mapFive Bruguiera species and one hybrid are recognised in Australia’s mangroves across the northern coast from Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales. They are distinguished by the number of buds in inflorescences, bud size, ribbing on calyces, numbers of calyces, shape of petal lobes, presence and length of spines between petal lobes and bristles on petals lobes.

Community Volunteers

A key feature of MangroveWatch is its close partnership between community volunteers and scientists from the James Cook University’s Mangrove Hub. Together they are systematically recording basic data as video and still imagery for assessments of estuarine habitat health.

Armed with expert support, training and advice, MangroveWatch volunteers in key regions are actively contributing to the monitoring of local estuaries and shorelines. An important goal in this phase of the program is to develop a network of like minded groups with the aim of producing public documents that describe important issues affecting local estuaries and mangroves, and their overall health.

Getting Involved

If you would like to find out more about us or if you like to initiate your own MangroveWatch group within your area, please contact someone at the Mangrove Hub. We will be happy to help.

  • Mangrove Hub Facilitator
  • Dr Norm Duke
  • MangroveWatch Ltd
    ABN: 44 153 297 771
  • PO Box 1250,
  • Elanora Q 4221
  • Mangrove Hub Email

Mangrove Watch Brochure

You can download our fact and information sheet (see link below) to get more information about the MangroveWatch programs.

Mangrove Watch Brochure